Veterinary Medicine: Laparotomy

In bitches, is ovariectomy/ovariohysterectomy by laparoscopy less painful postoperatively than by midline open laparotomy?

Summary Despite the widely held belief that laparoscopic surgery is associated with less postoperative pain, the available veterinary literature only provides weak evidence to support this in bitches undergoing ovariectomy/ovariohysterectomy. There are many uncontrolled variables to consider across these underpowered studies including surgeon number (and experience), the choice of perioperative analgesia, method of pain scoring […]