Facial changes related to brachycephaly in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari‐like malformation associated pain and secondary syringomyelia

Publication date 5th November 2019
Authors S P Knowler, E Dumas, M. Spiteri, A K McFadyen, F Stringer, K Wells, Clare Rusbridge


Morphometric analysis of facial anatomy and dysmorphia in CM‐associated pain (CM‐P) and syringomyelia (SM) in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS).


Sixty-six client-owned CKCS


Retrospective study of anonymized T2W sagittal magnetic resonance imaging of 3 clinical groups: (1) 11 without central canal dilation (ccd) or SM (CM‐N), (2) 15 with CM‐P with no SM or


Sixteen of 28 measured variables were associated to SM‐S compared to CM‐N and CM‐P. Of these 6 were common to both groups. Predictive variables determined by discriminant analysis were (1) the ratio of cranial height with cranial length (P 


CKCS with CM‐P and SM‐S have cranial brachycephaly with osseous insufficiency in the skull with rostral flattening and increased proximity of the hard and soft palate to the cranial base. Changes are greatest with CM‐P. These findings have relevance for understanding disease pathogenesis and for selection of head conformation for breeding purposes.