Facial changes related to brachycephaly in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari‐like malformation associated pain and secondary syringomyelia


Morphometric analysis of facial anatomy and dysmorphia in CM‐associated pain (CM‐P) and syringomyelia (SM) in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS).


Retrospective study of anonymized T2W sagittal magnetic resonance imaging of 3 clinical groups: (1) 11 without central canal dilation (ccd) or SM (CM‐N), (2) 15 with CM‐P with no SM or


Sixteen of 28 measured variables were associated to SM‐S compared to CM‐N and CM‐P. Of these 6 were common to both groups. Predictive variables determined by discriminant analysis were (1) the ratio of cranial height with cranial length (P 

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