Investigation of the utility of lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology for the staging of malignant solid tumors in dogs

Objective

The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity of FNAC and the significance of nondiagnostic FNAC when staging canine malignant tumors. A secondary objective was to determine the prevalence of multiple nodal metastases.

Methods

Lymph nodes draining malignant solid tumors assessed with FNAC and histopathology were included. The sensitivity/specificity of FNAC was determined for LNs with diagnostic FNAC, using histopathology as the gold standard. The proportion of nondiagnostic FNAC and associated histopathologic prevalence of metastasis were determined. Among the tumors with multiple LNs assessed, the prevalence of multiple nodal metastases was determined.

Results

The sensitivity of FNAC (194 LNs) was 67% for sarcomas, 100% for carcinomas, 63% for melanomas, 75% for mast cell tumors, and 100% for other round cell tumors. The specificity varied between 83% and 96%. Nondiagnostic FNAC was reported in 25% of LNs sampled (65/259), most of which were nonenlarged and/or difficult to access, and 20% of which were metastatic on histopathology. When several LNs were assessed (88/189 tumors), the prevalence of multiple nodal metastases was 24%.

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