Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing

Summary

This synoptic study gives a concise overview of current knowledge of bone healing, the role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue regeneration and contemporary possibilities of supporting regeneration of damaged bone. Attention of research concerning the healing of fractures with extensive loss of bone tissue following trauma, the treatment of belatedly healing or non-healing fractures or the healing of segmental bone defects following tumour resection, is focused on development of three-dimensional scaffolds planted with mesenchymal stem cells that might be used for reconstruction of such large bone lesions. Presented are possibilities of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells combined with biomaterials into bone defects, including the results of our own experimental studies dealing with the use of stem cells in the treatment of damaged tissues of the musculoskeletal system in animal models.

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