Book chapter(s) by Clare Rusbridge. Syringomyelia is an increasingly common diagnosis in veterinary medicine, especially in toy breed dogs where selections for small size and brachycephalic head shape are contributing factors. The most common cause is a condition analogous to Chiari I malformation in humans. This chapter details the pathophysiology, clinical signs, medical and surgical management, progression and prognosis of the canine condition. As a naturally occurring model of both syringomyelia and central neuropathic pain, observations that may have relevance to the understanding of the pathophysiology of Chiari malformation and syringomyelia in humans are discussed. Finally, current knowledge of genetic factors and breeding advice is reviewed.